To our deepest regret, in dogs quite often, for various reasons, there are purulent inflammations, abscesses, fistulas.
What is a fistula?
Fistula, first of all, is a protective reaction of the body, which allows the resulting fluid (pus) to come out, into the external environment, through the fistulous canal, thereby protecting other layers of tissue from infection and spread of infection.
A fistula is an area of purulent inflammation that communicates with the external environment through the fistulous canal. To put it in simpler words, it is a small, narrow hole through which purulent masses come out through the canal. Outwardly, the fistula looks like an ordinary abscess, but it is a more dangerous inflammatory process.
Types of fistula in a dog
Fistulas are divided into types:
- congenital – occur with certain disorders of the development of the fetus in the womb, that is, with the development of pathology.
- acquired – occur with the development of the disease, the ingress of a foreign body, with fractures, gunshot wounds, stabbing wounds, postoperative consequences).
By the type of origin, fistulas are also subdivided into:
external (an external fistula is characterized by the connection of the abscess site with the external environment).
internal (internal fistula is characterized by the connection of the site of the inflammatory process (abscess) with another area of the body or organ).
Fistula in dogs due to foreign body contact
Such a banal foreign body can be ustyuk grass (ustyug, ostyug, dry spikelets), which can get into the eye (under the eye), paw, armpit, groin, ear, nose of the dog or other places during a summer walk. In fact, a very dangerous herb, it can instantly cut the skin with its tip, get into the muscle and continue to move along it for weeks, or even months.
The main thing is to pay attention to your pet in time if it limps, whines, licks its paw in the area of concern, if the spike grass has not gone deep, you can remove it yourself. It is impossible to get the spikelet yourself if it has gone deep enough, only with the help of a veterinarian, surgically.
Parorectal (rectal) fistula in a dog
If you notice a fistula in the back of your dog, then most likely it arose with inflammation of the paraanal glands. According to the statistics of people turning to veterinary clinics with such an ailment, every second case has exactly this origin and nature of the course of the disease.
Causes of a parorectal fistula in a dog:
Rectal fistulas in dogs occur when the anal glands that are located on the sides of the anus are blocked. The causes of this type of fistula in a dog can be:
- improper nutrition;
- metabolic disease;
- genetic predisposition;
- violation of ventilation of the anal glands (dogs with lush, thick hair and a bushy tail);
- lack of cleaning of the anal glands.
In diagnosing this disease, it is important not to confuse it with others: hemorrhoids, rectal lunge.
Fistula in a dog after surgery
A fistula in a dog can occur as a result of surgical intervention (sterilization, caesarean) in the area of the surgical suture, the so-called ligature fistula. It occurs as a result of insufficient disinfection of the suture threads or they are somehow contaminated during the operation. … As a result, inflammation occurs around the suture thread, pus begins to form in the body cavity, the connective tissue grows and thickens, so a fistula is formed.
If you notice a postoperative fistula in your dog, immediately start treating it, if you play for time – this will lead to the development of a septic process. The consequences can be sad!
Treating a fistula in a dog
What to do if a dog has a fistula? In any case, we do not advise you to self-medicate and recommend that you immediately, without fail, contact your veterinarian.
Of course, there are relatively mild cases of a fistula, and you can still provide first aid to your pet if you have any skills.
Let’s take, for example, the formation of a fistula under the eye, which has already broken through and the actions that need to be taken:
- process the site of the focus with raster chlorhexidine or furacilin solution, remove purulent discharge;
- into the wound itself, the fistula canal (fistulous course), using a 2-cube syringe, inject the antiseptic ointment “Levomekol”;
- with the same ointment, treat the tissues around the hearth;
- you also need to use the enzymes chymotrypsin and trypsin, which dissolve necrotic tissues, are also introduced into the channel itself;
- the activity of these drugs lasts no more than 4-5 hours, such procedures should be carried out 2-3 times a day;
- it is forbidden to use iodine because it leaves a burn, increases the abscess;
- with abundant purulent discharge, it is forbidden to use fatty ointments, such as synthomycin ointment, Vishnevsky ointment because they clog the fistulous canal and disrupt the process of outflow of pus;
- it is good to include physiotherapeutic procedures (UHF therapy, quartzing of a wound) into the treatment regimen. This will help reduce swelling, kill microorganisms in the wound, and reduce the spread of infection.
- a mandatory aspect of treatment is the use of antibiotics with a wide spectrum of action – ampicillin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ceftriaxone. Inject intramuscularly at a dosage of 0.1 ml per kilogram of body weight, once a day for 5 days, depending on the course of the disease.